Receiving medical assistance means to be able to consult a doctor, undergo medical tests and getting treatment. In Italy medical assistance is available also to illegal non-EU immigrants when there is a danger of severe injuries to people. Italian law prohibits health workers from denouncing  illegal immigrants. Do not hesitate, therefore, to resort to hospital care, although you do not hold a residence permit.. 
In order to have access to the full  medical benefits of the system, it is necessary to register with the National Health Service. Only if you are a registered member of the NHS, you have the right to receive medical assistance in all hospitals and health facilities and you can register with a local General Practitioner. If you want to know how to register with the National Health Service  
you can consult our section How to obtain a Health Record Book.