The Health Record Book is a personal document proving that you are registered with the Italian Health Service and makes it possible for you to get medical assistance. The Book bears your name and the name of the General Practitioner you have chosen when registering with the National Health Service and any exemption from medical charges.   

What the Health Record Book is for

If you are registered with the National Health Service you have the right to receive medical assistance at any of the hospitals and medical centres. You can also get assistance from a General Practitioner (or by a paediatrician  for a child up to 14 years old) that you can choose from a list
of doctors and paediatricians available at registration. Since the relationship with the family doctor is based on mutual trust, it is advisable to meet the doctor before choosing him/her.
The family doctor (also called General Practitioner) is your reference point for any health problem you might experience. Your GP will provide you with all the instructions and information to prevent illnesses, can see you  at his/her practice or, can see patients at their domicile if they are ill or unable to move. The GP has the duty of writing out medicine prescriptions and of arranging for whatever test or treatment are considered necessary.

Fonti: Ministero della Sanità - ASL Napoli